Moscow Public space style Transformation
设计师：Zaha Hadid、Norman Foster
苏联解体后的一段时间里，苏联处于资本主义的阶段，一个来自俄罗斯当地的小团队，设计师的平均年龄为50岁，开始了莫斯科公园的建造工作。他们的设计曾经打败了国际上著名设计师Zaha Hadid和Norman Foster，获得胜利。该团队最初的目标就是提升公园的价值，从而增加自身的财富，能够在莫斯科这座城市生存下去。莫斯科市长Yuri Luzhkov在位期间，公共空间都有明显的保守姿态，这也成为了其他城市景观设计的一般标准，这种特点在彼得大帝的纪念碑设计上表现的尤为突出，它将近100米高，是世界上最高的纪念碑。
Public space was long a non-issue in Moscow. It was not until 2010, with the removal of mayor Yuri Luzhkov that a change began. A rethinking of public spirit occurred that went beyond the collectivist ideals of the Soviet period and the egocentrism of the preceding decade. As a result, planners once again began to work on the design of public space.
During the times of turbo-capitalism after the collapse of the Soviet Union, a small, closed club of Russian architects, men who are now around 50 years old, dominated construction activity in Moscow. Even international stars like Zaha Hadid and Norman Foster were not able to take advantage of the competitions they had won. While a small number of architects were mainly concerned with increasing their wealth, most were merely trying to survive. Under Moscow’s mayor Yuri Luzhkov, public space was not an issue. His conservative taste became the general standard and found its peak in bizarre antics like the monument to Czar Peter the Great – which is, at nearly 100 metres in height, one of the highest monuments worldwide.